Bringing You the Daily Dispatch

Researchers are celebrating the discovery of a novel antibiotic that effectively eliminates bacteria resistant to traditional medication.
Science World News

Researchers are celebrating the discovery of a novel antibiotic that effectively eliminates bacteria resistant to traditional medication.

Researchers have found a completely novel type of antibiotic that has the potential to eliminate one of the three types of bacteria that are known to be a major risk to human health due to their high level of resistance to drugs.

Zosurabalpin successfully overcame drug-resistant strains of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (also known as Crab) in laboratory mice with pneumonia and sepsis. It is currently undergoing human trials.

The World Health Organization has deemed Crab, along with two other antibiotic-resistant bacteria – Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae – as priority 1 critical pathogens.

Dr. Andrew Edwards, a senior lecturer in molecular microbiology at Imperial College London, who was not involved in the study, stated that crab is a major contributor to infections in hospitals, especially in individuals using ventilators. Although it is not highly virulent, it is resistant to various antibiotics, making treatment challenging.

Regrettably, finding effective treatments for this bacterium has proven to be extremely difficult due to its ability to prevent antibiotics from penetrating its outer cell layer. However, this recent development is quite promising and gives assurance that the methods being employed to discover new antibiotics can yield positive results.

Antibiotic-resistant infections pose an urgent threat to human health – particularly those caused by a large group of bacteria known as Gram-negative bacteria, which are protected by an outer shell containing a substance called lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Dr. Michael Lobritz, the global head of infectious diseases at Roche Pharma Research and Early Development in Basel, Switzerland, stated that LPS enables bacteria to survive in challenging environments and evade our immune system. The new drug was developed by Roche Pharma Research and Early Development.

It has been over 50 years since a new antibiotic for Gram-negative bacteria has been approved.

Previously, Roche had recognized that Zosurabalpin had the potential to inhibit the growth of A baumannii. However, there was uncertainty about its mechanism of action and its efficacy in animals with infections related to Crab.

Using a set of trials published in the scientific journal Nature, Professor Daniel Kahne and his team at Harvard University in Cambridge, United States, demonstrated that the medication hindered the transfer of LPS to the outer layer of the bacteria, leading to its demise. They also observed that Zosurabalpin significantly decreased levels of bacteria in mice with pneumonia caused by Crab and prevented the mortality of those with sepsis related to Crab.

According to Lobritz, this is the first instance of something functioning in this manner, making it distinct in its chemical composition and method of operation.

He emphasized that this molecule alone would not be enough to address the issue of antimicrobial resistance in public health. However, this finding could pave the way for future attempts to target the same transport system in other bacteria.

Edwards stated that a new antibiotic, murepavadin, was in the works and also targeted LPS transport, but utilized a distinct mechanism.

The speaker stated that the effectiveness of the treatment has been demonstrated on a specific type of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This indicates the potential for further application of this treatment on other bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, such as Klebsiella and E coli.

He warned that the process of developing new medications from animal testing to human use may prove to be very challenging.

The science, innovation, and technology committee in the UK has recommended taking action to explore the potential of bacteriophages, also known as bacteria-killing viruses, as a substitute for antibiotics in cases of resistant infections.

According to a report released on Wednesday, the committee stated that the progress of phage therapies has encountered a roadblock. This is due to the fact that in order for them to be approved for clinical trials, they must meet specific manufacturing standards. However, the funding for manufacturing facilities relies on the success of these clinical trials.

It has been suggested that the government should contemplate creating a compact establishment at the inactive Rosalind Franklin lab in the West Midlands. This facility was initially established for the purpose of conducting Covid tests during the pandemic.

Source: theguardian.com